Following Aristotle’s lifetime, Zeno of Citium founded Stoicism, which was a school of Hellenistic philosophy. The other main school of though in that time period was that of Epicurus, which wasn’t as popular due to its “hedonistic, godless ethic”.
Zeno was a pupil of Diogenes of Sinope and he agreed with his approach to life. He believed that natural laws govern the universe, which were put in place by a ‘supreme lawgiver‘.
Zeno reasoned that man can’t change this reality, but rather has to accept both the pleasant and the cruel elements of it. Though, he also argued that man is born with a rational soul that allows him to exercise free will.
Zeno declared that people aren’t forced to pursue a ‘good life‘, but rather this is something that we are to choose at our own accord. He argued that individuals have to choose to be at peace with the things they can’t control.
Zeno concluded that one would need to be indifferent to pain or pleasure, poverty or riches. And if one can do so, then he would live a life that is harmonious with nature in all aspects, good or bad, aligning one with the rulings of the supreme lawgiver.